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Brief interruptions in coronary blood flow precondition the heart, engage delta-opioid receptor (DOR) mechanisms and reduce the damage that typically accompanies subsequent longer coronary occlusions. Repeated short occlusions of the sinoatrial (SA) node artery progressively raised nodal methionine-enkephalin-arginine-phenylalanine (MEAP) and improved vagal transmission during subsequent long occlusions in anesthetized dogs. The DOR type-1 (DOR-1) antagonist, BNTX reversed the vagotonic effect. Higher doses of enkephalin interrupted vagal transmission through a DOR-2 mechanism. The current study tested whether the preconditioning (PC) protocol, the later occlusion or a combination of both was required for the vagotonic effect. The study also tested whether evolving vagotonic effects included withdrawal of competing DOR-2 vagolytic influences. Vagal transmission progressively improved during successive SA nodal artery occlusions. The vagotonic effect was absent in sham animals and after DOR-1 blockade. After completing the PC protocol, exogenously applied vagolytic doses of MEAP reduced vagal transmission under both normal and occluded conditions. The magnitude of these DOR-2 vagolytic effects was small compared to controls and repeated MEAP challenges rapidly eroded vagolytic responses further. Prior DOR-1 blockade did not alter the PC mediated, progressive loss of DOR-2 vagolytic responses. In conclusion, DOR-1 vagotonic responses evolved from signals earlier in the PC protocol and erosion of competing DOR-2 vagolytic responses may have contributed to an unmasking of vagotonic responses. The data support the hypothesis that PC and DOR-2 stimulation promote DOR trafficking, and down regulation of the vagolytic DOR-2 phenotype in favor of the vagotonic DOR-1 phenotype. DOR-1 blockade may accelerate the process by sequestering newly emerging receptors.
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This study was aimed to investigate the role of the delta-opioid receptor (DOR)-β-arrestin1-Bcl-2 signal transduction pathway in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) and the intervention effects of oxymatrine on UC. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal group, model group, oxymatrine-treated group and mesalazine-treated group (n=10 each) at random. The rat UC model was established by intra-colonic injection of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in the model group and two treatment groups. The rats in oxymatrine-treated group were subjected to intramuscular injection of oxymatrine [63 mg/(kgday)] for 15 days, and those in mesalazine-treated group given mesalazine solution [0.5 g/(kgday)] by gastric lavage for the same days. Animals in normal group and model group were administered 3 mL water by gastric lavage for 15 days. On the 16th day, after fasting for 24 h, the rats were sacrificed for the removal of colon tissues. The expression levels of DOR, β-arrestin1 and Bcl-2 were determined in colon tissues by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. It was found that the expression levels of DOR, β-arrestin1 and Bcl-2 protein and mRNA were significantly increased in the model group as compared with the other groups (P
Fibroblastic proliferation of subconjunctival tissues remains a primary mechanism of failure in filtration surgery. Minimizing the surgical manipulation of episcleral tissues may reduce scarring. Laser sclerostomy surgery involves minimal tissue dissection, and is gaining attention as a method of potentially improving filter duration in high-risk cases. Twenty-five New Zealand rabbits underwent filtration surgery in one eye, and the fellow eye remained as the unoperated control. Ten rabbits underwent ab externo diode laser sclerostomy surgery, ten underwent ab interno diode sclerostomy surgery, and five had posterior sclerostomy procedures. Filtration failure was defined as a less-than-4-mmHg intraocular pressure (IOP) difference between the operative and control eyes. The mean time to failure for the ab externo, ab interno, and conventional posterior sclerostomy techniques measured 17.4 +/- 11.5, 13.1 +/- 6.7, and 6.0 +/- 3.1 days, respectively. In a comparison of the laser-treated groups with the conventional procedure, the time to failure was significantly longer (P = 0.02) for the ab externo filter. The mean ab interno sclerostomy duration was longer than the posterior lip procedure, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.15). The overall level of IOP reduction was similar in the three groups. These data suggest that diode laser sclerostomy is a feasible technique in rabbits, and the ab externo approach resulted in longer filter duration than the conventional posterior lip procedure in this model.
The reactivity of 194 samples of CSF against VDRL and FTA-ABS was studied in patients attending the Clinical Hospital in Salamanca over a five years period. This laboratory was asked to rule out an etiology of syphilis. Twelve samples of CSF proved to be reactive (6.2%) against VDRL and/or FTA-ABS. Seven of these corresponded to six adults diagnosed as suffering from neurosyphilis and one to an infant with early congenital syphilis without neurological alterations; these had in common the presence of active syphilis and a reactive FTA-ABS in serum. In the CSF of the six cases of neurosyphilis, VDRL was reactive in two patients (33.3%) and FTA-ABS in five (83.3%). One minimally reactive VDRL and four FTA-ABS were detected in the remaining five patients, with no known previous history of syphilis, that were suffering from different neurological alterations and that had a nonreactive FTA-ABS in serum. The results obtained in this study point to inappropriate use in CSF of VDRL and FTA-ABS to exclude neurosyphilis in our hospital since only 3.6% of the CSF studied corresponded to patients diagnosed as suffering from neurosyphilis and also to the need for improving the criteria for patient selection.
To ensure their survival, a number of bacterial and plant species have evolved a common strategy to capture energy from other biological systems. Being imperfect pathogens, organisms synthesizing multi-subunit AB toxins are responsible for the mortality of millions of people and animals annually. Vaccination against these organisms and their toxins has proved rather ineffective in providing long-term protection from disease. In response to the debilitating effects of AB toxins on epithelial cells of the digestive mucosa, mechanisms underlying toxin immunomodulation of immune responses have become the focus of increasing experimentation. The results of these studies reveal that AB toxins may have a beneficial application as adjuvants for the enhancement of immune protection against infection and autoimmunity. Here, we examine similarities and differences in the structure and function of bacterial and plant AB toxins that underlie their toxicity and their exceptional properties as immunomodulators for stimulating immune responses against infectious disease and for immune suppression of organ-specific autoimmunity.
To ensure their survival, a number of bacterial and plant species have evolved a common strategy to capture energy from other biological systems. Being imperfect pathogens, organisms synthesizing multi-subunit AB toxins are responsible for the mortality of millions of people and animals annually. Vaccination against these organisms and their toxins has proved rather ineffective in providing long-term protection from disease. In response to the debilitating effects of AB toxins on epithelial cells of the digestive mucosa, mechanisms underlying toxin immunomodulation of immune responses have become the focus of increasing experimentation. The results of these studies reveal that AB toxins may have a beneficial application as adjuvants for the enhancement of immune protection against infection and autoimmunity. Here, we examine similarities and differences in the structure and function of bacterial and plant AB toxins that underlie their toxicity and their exceptional properties as immunomodulators for stimulating immune responses against infectious disease and for immune suppression of organ-specific autoimmunity. PMID:22069653
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that may play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. Radiolabeled anti-MIF McAb can be used to detect in vivo inflammatory changes. The objective of this study was to investigate in vivo biology of radioiodinated anti-MIF McAb using the inflammation model mice. Anti-MIF McAb was radioiodinated with NaI125 by Iodogen method. Animal models were induced in the mice by intramuscular injection of S. aureus, E. coli, and turpentine oil. The biodistribution studies with radioiodinated anti-MIF McAb were performed on inflammation mice. The relationship between inflammatory lesions and anti-MIF McAb binding was investigated using the percent of injected dose per gram tissue (% ID/g) of tissue samples and whole-body autoradiography. The radioactivity of I125-anti-MIF McAb in the inflammatory tissue increased gradually for three inflammation models. The highest uptake was found in S. aureus group and the lowest was in E. coli group. The uptake in turpentine oil group was average. Whole-body autoradiography showed that all inflammation foci could be visualized clearly from 24 hours after injection, but 48 hours images were much clearer in accordance with the high T/NT ratio. These results demonstrate the ability of radioiodinated anti-MIF McAb to measure in vivo inflammatory events represented by high expression of MIF and suggests that radiolabeled anti-MIF McAb warrants further investigation as a potential inflammation-seeking agent for imaging to detect inflammatory disorders. PMID:18317509
Sorbitol crystallization-induced aggregation of mAbs in the frozen state was evaluated. The effect of protein aggregation resulting from sorbitol crystallization was measured as a function of formulation variables such as protein concentration and pH. Long-term studies were performed on both IgG1 and IgG2 mAbs over the protein concentration range of 0.1-120 mg/mL. Protein aggregation was measured by size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) and further characterized by capillary-electrophoresis SDS. Sorbitol crystallization was monitored and characterized by subambient differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Aggregation due to sorbitol crystallization is inversely proportional to both protein concentration and formulation pH. At high protein concentrations, sorbitol crystallization was suppressed, and minimal aggregation by SE-HPLC resulted, presumably because of self-stabilization of the mAbs. The glass transition temperature (Tg ') and fragility index measurements were made to assess the influence of molecular mobility on the crystallization of sorbitol. Tg ' increased with increasing protein concentration for both mAbs. The fragility index decreased with increasing protein concentration, suggesting that it is increasingly difficult for sorbitol to crystallize at high protein concentrations. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.